Sourdough doughnuts

1 cup starter
1 cup milk
2 cups bleached or unbleached flour

Mix well and allow to rise overnight. Then add:
1 cup sugar
1/2 cup melted or liquid shortening
1/2 teaspoon salt
2 eggs (beaten)
2-3 cups flour
1-2 teaspoons cinnamon (optional)


Knead well on floured surface and allow to rise until doubled. Knead again
and allow to rise until doubled. Roll dough about 1/2 inch thick and cut
with doughnut cutter. Allow them to rise in a warm place for 30-60 minutes.
Cook in hot oil (375 degrees) on each side until golden brown. Use a spatula
to introduce them to the oil. A small wooden dowel works best to remove them
from the hot oil. Drain for a few minutes on absorbent toweling, then shake
in a paper bag with sugar until well coated.

The following recipes for pancakes, waffles and bread are reproduced
verbatim from the Payne article:

Sourdough bread


2 cups starter
1 cup milk, scalded and cooled to lukewarm
1/4 cup butter
1/4 cup sugar or honey
2 teaspoons salt
2 teaspoons baking soda
5-7 cups flour
1 tablespoon yeast (optional)
1/2 cup wheat germ (optional - add with flour)


Stir butter, sugar and salt into milk and cool to lukewarm. Add sourdough
starter. Dissolve soda (and yeast if used) in a little warm water and stir
in. Add flour until dough is kneadable. Knead well. Let rise three hours -
or about one hour if yeast is used. When doubled, punch down and shape into
two loaves. Place in greased loaf pans and let rise until the hump is above
edges of pans. Bake at 400 degrees for 25-30 minutes.

Sourdough pancakes

(Note: Remember to feed your starter the day before, or let the batter set
several hours.)

1 cup sourdough starter
1 cup flour
1 tablespoon honey or sugar
1 egg, beaten
2 tablespoons oil or melted butter
1/2 cup milk, scalded and cooled to lukewarm
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon baking soda dissolved in 1 tablespoon water


Mix all ingredients except soda with starter. Heat a griddle or skillet to
375 degrees. Just before cooking, fold dissolved soda into batter. If batter
seems too thick, dilute with lukewarm water. Bake as for ordinary pancakes.


Sourdough waffles Use the above recipe with 4 tablespoons oil or melted
butter.


Using sourdough in other recipes

Sourdough can be used in almost any recipe for quick breads, cakes, cookies,
etc., by this simple substitution formula:

For recipes using 2 cups of liquid, substitute 1 cup sourdough starter for
3/4 cup of the liquid and add 1 teaspoon baking soda for each cup of
starter.

Example:
For each 2 cups liquid required in recipe, use:
1 cup sourdough starter
1-1/4 cup liquid (water, milk, etc.)
1 teaspoon baking soda

For each 1 cup liquid required in recipe, use:
1/2 cup sourdough starter
5/8 cup liquid

1/2 teaspoon baking soda


Preserving a starter culture

Did you ever wonder how immigrants sailing in the cramped quarters of
steerage managed to protect their starter culture during the weeks at sea?
It is highly doubtful that they did it with a liquid culture in a
loose-topped container! Neither did they have the convenience of modern
dried yeast. . . or did they?

Although I can't say for sure, they might have used one of the many methods
I uncovered while researching old cookbooks. The following seems to combine
all the essential elements of preserving starter cultures by drying.

Dried yeast patties

2 cups starter
5 cups warm water
5 tablespoons shortening
5 tablespoons sugar, honey, molasses or syrup
1 tablespoon salt
4 cups rye flour, light or dark (There's that reference to rye again)
1/4 teaspoon ginger (Old wives' tale?)


In a warm crock, mix everything but ginger into a thin batter. Let rise
overnight in a warm place. Reserve 1 cup for future starter or current
baking. Add ginger (?) and enough white corn meal to make a stiff dough.
Stir well.

Knead on corn meal-covered surface if necessary until dough can be worked.
Roll and cut with cookie cutter or pat into small round patties (cookie
style). Place on corn meal covered cookie sheet and turn daily until
thoroughly dried. Keep in a cool dry place, but not the refrigerator!